Many large-scale projects require a remarkable number of deliverables that can be challenging to manage and maintain. This article explores the facility capital project information and the need for the owner/operator (O/O) to explore the individual deliverable documents to develop a listing of digital content necessary to support facility lifecycle processes.
Many large-scale projects require a remarkable number of deliverables that can be challenging to manage and maintain. This article explores the facility capital project information and the need for the Owner Operator (O/O) to explore the individual deliverable documents to develop a listing of digital content necessary to support facility lifecycle processes. Many documents will provide critical information to manage the facility while other documents will only be maintained as references to be reviewed for future problems or desired modifications. As you step through the process for a configuration management interoperability solution (CMIS) you should understood that there are a series of steps that need to be conducted in order to obtain the full return on investment. This article will help you clarify the need to fully understand and manage capital project deliverables.
Today’s databases are capable of managing complex relationships between objects such as structures, systems, and components (SSC) as well as supporting documents along with thousands of critical digital content attributes. These databases allow for a generic data model structure to support the migration of millions of content and supporting documents as they reach a revision zero approval state. Before the O/O can develop or specify a data model, the O/O needs to understand the deliverable types and milestones that these documents will be delivered.
On one new build (Greenfield) capital project that I worked on, the client was provided a listing of over two hundred deliverables in a document deliverable matrix. Each entry in the matrix contained the following: name, description, discipline, origin (civil mechanical electrical, instrument, and controls), process origin (engineering, procurement, and construction), tool (computer aided design, analysis, and calculation), turnover formats (native, neutral, and pdf), and owner involvement (owner acceptance, owner input, and regulatory input). Greenfield facilities provide multiple documents for tens of structures, hundreds of systems, and tens of thousands of components. If one were to extend each deliverable type to the number SSC’s, the total number of documents for a Greenfield capital project may well exceed one million. Process facility types, including those involving oil refining, oil and gas production, petrochemical, chemical, specialty chemical, and electric utility plants—whether they be hydro, fossil, or nuclear— will also determine how many documents will be generated during a capital project.
Engineering, procurement construction (EPC) create deliverables over a series of gated milestones and are published as hard-copy documents. Documents are managed within the EPC document management system (DMS) inaccessible to the Owner Operator (O/O) until turnover of the facility months prior to startup. The O/O spends the first twenty years going through the deliverables to build out his operational applications, spreadsheets, and databases to solve day-to-day issues while in a reactive firefighting mode.
It should be the objective of the O/O to review and understand what deliverable types contain content that will support lifecycle processes of the facility. The O/O should identify the earliest project milestone that the capital project organization can begin to be migrated from the EPC to the operational organization (OPEX) for placement into a configuration management interoperability solution (CMIS) repository. Technology will simultaneously migrate the document and content to the CMIS repository without any additional work effort by the EPC contractors.
Capital projects are divided into gated milestones that define the separate phases of the engineering, procurement, construction, and commissioning business processes. Many of the project deliverables are revised several times before they are finalized.
Milestone 10: Conceptual Design
During this milestone, engineering prepares the following deliverable types: Mechanical Electrical System Design Requirements Documents (SDRD), Preliminary Instrument and Controls (I&C) SDRD, I&C functional requirement specification, preliminary system design documents, preliminary process and instrumentation diagrams (P&ID), functional logic diagrams, initial electrical load lists, initial electrical equipment layout, preliminary piping and the supporting 3D model, complete building data information, and building design requirements documents (BDRD).
Milestone 20: Initial Design
In milestone 20, engineering prepares the following deliverable types: static dynamic model analysis, structural design calculations, preliminary structural wall and foundation drawings, civil and structural procurement specifications, preliminary piping isometrics, preliminary pipe stress, preliminary pipe layout by building by elevation, mechanical system final control requirements, mechanical systems equipment specifications and data sheets, enhanced P&ID, mechanical systems calculations, preliminary I&C SDRD, preliminary instrument list, I&C equipment specifications, electrical equipment specifications, electrical calculations, update load list, update electrical termination and pull (ETAP) and calculations, finalize I&C electrical requirement interface.
Milestone 30: Detailed, Design, and Procurement
Milestone 30 occurs when engineering and procurement prepare the following deliverable types: civil receive review vendor data, final 3D model pipe and supports, reconcile pipe stresses, reconcile pipe supports, pipe and support procurement specifications; mechanical system receive review vendor data, mechanical and heating ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) procurement specifications; analysis reliability failure mode effects analysis (FMEA), software equipment design, hardware equipment design, and I&C procurement specifications; electrical system receive review vendor data, electrical procurement specifications, updated load lists, update ETAP and calculations, revised elect system design document (SDD), prepared terminations, and wiring diagrams; civil, mechanical, electrical, I&C, pipe, and support requests for procurement (RFP).
Milestone 40: Final Design and Procurement
During this milestone engineering and procurement prepare the following deliverable types: equipment support and calculation drawings, steel platform calculations and drawings, anchor calculations and drawings, rebar calculations and drawings, construction and rigging drawings, prepared isometrics for construction, prepared piping drawings for construction, mechanical system final SDD mechanical systems and final P&ID, mechanical systems final system calculations, mechanical I&C original equipment manufacturer (OEM) manufacturing and testing, finalized SDRD SDD logics, finalized cable routing, finalized electrical load list, finalized elect SDD, finalized ETAP model analysis and calculations, materials, and services contracts, and procurement for civil, mechanical, electrical, I&C, pipe, and support.
Milestone 50: Construction
In milestone 50, construction prepare the following deliverable types: discipline based construction work packages, field-weld packages, construction-inspection packages, regulatory documentation packages (inspections, tests, analysis, and acceptance criteria (ITAAC) for nuclear only), mechanical completion punch lists, and the goods receipts of materials and services for civil, mechanical, electrical, I&C, pipe, and supports.
Milestone 60: Commissioning and Startup
During milestone 60, commissioning (the contractor responsible for equipment preservation and the static and dynamic testing of the SSC to assure operability) prepares the following deliverable types: structure and system commissioning work packages, static commissioning punch lists, dynamic commissioning punch lists, commissioning test packages, regulatory closure documentation [ITAAC nuclear only], operational readiness assessments, and structure and system turnover packages.
The facility continuously goes through repeating cycles as it ages. Initially, the facility is designed, components procured, structures, systems, and components are manufactured, constructed, or installed and systems and components are commissioned. Operation’s takes over the responsibility of the facility from the EPC and begins routine maintenance and operations activities. As facilities age, modifications or expansions are required to update the facility, which kicks off a new cycle of engineering, procurement, construction, and commissioning. Regulatory requirements and commitments ensure that the facility is safe and reliable, thus achieving the prized operational excellence rating. Each process relies on content that is specific to the process and may be common to other processes. OPEX should begin to build out a process listing of content.
Figure 1. Facility Lifecycle Processes
The following figure above depicts the typical facility lifecycle processes that consume capital project information to operate and maintain the facility.
Figure 2. The Capital Project Journey to Operational Readiness
This figure depicts the capital project (CAPEX) processes and the operations journey to collect the information and transform raw EPC content into content that can be consumed by the operational systems managed by the operational organization (OPEX).
The Process and Instrument Diagram (P&ID) is one of the first system deliverables completed by engineering; content found within a P&ID (such as system components and system piping connectivity) can readily be consumed by reliability engineers.
Facility reliability analysis is normally an afterthought implemented by OPEX to improve facility uptime and reduce costs. Reliability analysis should begin during initial design to determine the systems function, component function, and separate individual components into the following categories: critical, non-critical, and run-to-failure. System, components, connectivity, and the component class subclass obtained from the P&ID will be used to analyze component functions, function failures, failure severity, failure effect, failure mode, and failure cause. This analysis results in preventative maintenance (PM) and predictive maintenance (PdM) tasks essential to defining maintenance strategies early on in the construction phase of the project. OPEX feedback from the reliability analysis into the detailed design process will allow for the facilities components to be designed for reliability rather than providing components at least cost.
OPEX should review each capital project deliverable carefully to identify the specific content that is required to support facility operations. Content should be placed into these categories: critical, optional, and not required. Content categories optional and not required may not be economically feasible to be included in the data model. Content in these two categories should be managed in the repository in document form only.
Only the critical content will be captured from each deliverable in the data-model repository. The data-model basic configuration provides place holders for specific deliverable content. Each deliverable will publish content from the design tools into the data-model repository. Many of the project deliverables contain information for more than one component, such as the two-dimensional diagrams (2D) mechanical P&ID, electrical one-line diagrams (OLD), and instrumentation flow control diagrams (FCD). All of the 2D deliverables contain content fundamental to multiple facility lifecycle processes (reliability, operations, and maintenance).
Let’s illustrate the types of documents with a few examples. The first example of critical documents would be 2D diagrams P&ID, OLD, and FCD content, including document numbers, equipment identification numbers, pipe, power and control cable identification numbers, descriptions, system identification numbers, and equipment class and subclass. A single P&ID can contain as many as one hundred components. The 2D diagrams also identify the relationships or connectivity between each component (connectivity example isolation valve 100 connects to pipe line 1000, which connects to pump 100A, which connects to pipe line 100, which connects to isolation valve 101, while pump 100A connects to motor 100 and also connects to instruments T101, P102, and V200, etc.).
Another critical example would be equipment data sheets (EDS) containing hundreds of attributes that identify the design and operating ranges of the specific manufacture model number selected by design. Additionally, EDS will provide the applicable equipment data sheet document number, equipment manufacture, and model number. For each equipment class sub class, OPEX should select ten-to-twenty key attributes. These key attributes will be migrated to the data-model repository with the other selected content. Operation can easily view the entire document by clicking on the document in the repository to determine other non-key attributes.
There are also less critical examples, such as power and control cable pull and termination cards containing detailed information about the specific cable and how the cable was wired or terminated for the pump motor, motor control center, and circuit breaker. This information detail may not be economical to manage within the repository and should be managed solely as a document. The cable number will be linked to the supporting documents. Any document can be viewed by clicking on the document in the repository to identify the actual cable pull and termination details.
Some examples of optional documents could be civil; structural steel drawings contain mark numbers for all of the structural columns and the beams used in the construction of the facility. In the event that a structural steel mark number would be required, the document deliverables can be viewed by clicking on the document found within the repository. Additional optional examples include: civil reinforcing drawings and cadwelds that contain mark numbers for all of the reinforcing bar and cadweld locations found within the concrete of the facility. In the event that operations need to drill holes in the concrete to add a new support, the drawing would be sufficient to locate the materials and design spacing.
After the content requirements have been determined and the deliverables have been reviewed you are ready to begin aligning the content with corporate taxonomy standards. Managing this many documents for a large-scale capital project can be a challenge, but with good configuration management you can implement your own framework to maintain the integrity of these deliverables, which require large development efforts.